Alchemist

Alchemist Hinweise und Aktionen

Der Alchimist ist ein Roman des brasilianischen Schriftstellers Paulo Coelho. Er erschien unter dem Originaltitel „O Alquimista“. Die deutsche Erstausgabe erschien im Verlag Peter Erd. Der Roman verkaufte sich zwar gut, war aber lange. Alchemist oder Alchimist (von altägyptisch khem für „schwarz“) steht für: Alchemie praktizierende Person; Alchemist (Band), australische Metal-Band. Alchemie oder Alchimie (auch Alchymie; griechisch-arabisch-mittellateinisch alkimia, neulateinisch alchymia, frühneuhochdeutsch alchimei, alchemey). Herzlich willkommen bei Alchemist! Reinstoffe, Substanzgemische und Laborhilfsmittel für Forschung, Lehre und Hobby in den Bereichen Aquaristik, Botanik. The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho continues to change the lives of its readers forever. With more than two million copies sold.

Alchemist

Der Alchimist ist ein Roman des brasilianischen Schriftstellers Paulo Coelho. Er erschien unter dem Originaltitel „O Alquimista“. Die deutsche Erstausgabe erschien im Verlag Peter Erd. Der Roman verkaufte sich zwar gut, war aber lange. Alchemie Die Alchemie (auch Alchymie oder Alchimie) ist ein alter Zweig der Naturphilosophie und wurde im / Jahrhundert nach und nach von der. xc-cupen.se | Übersetzungen für 'alchemist' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen.

No, nor nobody ever did, or ever will, till we can see an alchemist grow rich. The alchemist constructed his ordered scheme of nature on the basis of the supposed universality of life.

Nature worship is not absent, but it is nature as seen by the fancy of the alchemist and astrologer. Stave off inanition with the word morsels from this month!

Words related to alchemist warlock , diviner , seer , enchanter , charmer , shaman , conjurer , medium , witch , soothsayer , sorceress , clairvoyant , magician , occultist , necromancer , thaumaturge , fortune-teller.

Example sentences from the Web for alchemist Well, he was no Svengali, no alchemist and, obviously, they would have happened without him.

The Book Lovers' Anthology Various. Pattison Muir. Along the way, the boy meets an Englishman who has come in search of an alchemist and continues his travels with his new companion.

When they reach an oasis, Santiago meets and falls in love with an Arabian girl named Fatima, to whom he proposes marriage.

She promises to do so only after he completes his journey. Frustrated at first, he later learns that true love will not stop nor must one sacrifice to it one's personal destiny, since to do so robs it of truth.

The boy then encounters a wise alchemist who also teaches him to realize his true self. Together, they risk a journey through the territory of warring tribes, where the boy is forced to demonstrate his oneness with "the soul of the world" by turning himself into a simoom before he is allowed to proceed.

When he begins digging within sight of the pyramids, he is robbed yet again, but accidentally learns from the leader of the thieves that the treasure he sought all along was in the ruined church where he had his original dream.

Coelho wrote The Alchemist in only two weeks in He explained that he was able to write at this pace because the story was "already written in [his] soul.

The book's main theme is about finding one's destiny , although according to The New York Times , The Alchemist is "more self-help than literature.

The Alchemist was first released by Rocco, [7] an obscure Brazilian publishing house. Albeit having sold "well," the publisher after a year decided to give Coelho back the rights.

Returning from the excursion, Coelho decided he had to keep on struggling [8] and was "so convinced it was a great book that [he] started knocking on doors.

In , a comic adaptation was published by Alexandre Jubran. In , a theatrical adaptation of The Alchemist was produced and performed in London.

In music, The Alchemist has inspired numerous bands of the same name. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For similarly named works, see Alchemist disambiguation.

Novel by Paulo Coelho. Dewey Decimal. Retrieved December 20, The Guardian. Retrieved January 27, The New York Times. Retrieved January 28,

Alchemist Harvard University Press. Although European craftsmen and technicians Sachen Games, Robert notes in his preface that alchemy was unknown in Latin Europe at the time of his writing. Money is Atrium Casino most important thing in the world? Gunpowder was used by the Mongols against the Hungarians inand in Europe by the 14th century. Example sentences from Alchemist Web for alchemist Well, he was no Svengali, no alchemist and, obviously, they would have happened without him.

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Ihr Bowser ist nicht aktuell. The Alchemist is an inspirational tale about following your dreams. Erst im späten Mittelalter wurde die Quaternität zur Trinität, wobei die Stufe der xanthosis bzw. He is also the most followed author on social media.

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Alchemist \u0026 Lunice Making Beats for the Red Bull BC One World Final Its a must-read. Beliebte Taschenbuch-Empfehlungen des Monats. So war es theoretisch möglich, einen Doppelkopf Spielen Gegen Computer Stoff hylevorzugsweise Spielothek Spiele Online Kostenlos Ohne Anmeldung unedlen Metallen entnommen, mit den edlen Prinzipien eidos von Club Casino Uk oder Silber neu zu gestalten. Diese Entdeckung beförderte Diskussionen über die Natur des Lichtes und führte bereits zu ersten spektroskopischen Untersuchungen. Commons Wikisource. If you don't believe in a benevolent higher power, this Alchemist just doesn't really work as anything other than a tale.

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Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice? Test your knowledge of strange human behaviors. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words?

Listen to the words and spell through all three levels. Login or Register. Save Word. A few days later Leonardo sent him for a rare mathematical book to the house of the alchemist , Sacrobosco.

No, nor nobody ever did, or ever will, till we can see an alchemist grow rich. The alchemist constructed his ordered scheme of nature on the basis of the supposed universality of life.

Nature worship is not absent, but it is nature as seen by the fancy of the alchemist and astrologer. Stave off inanition with the word morsels from this month!

The philosopher's stone of European alchemists can be compared to the Grand Elixir of Immortality sought by Chinese alchemists. However, in the hermetic view, these two goals were not unconnected, and the philosopher's stone was often equated with the universal panacea ; therefore, the two traditions may have had more in common than initially appears.

Black powder may have been an important invention of Chinese alchemists. As previously stated above, Chinese alchemy was more related to medicine.

It is said that the Chinese invented gunpowder while trying to find a potion for eternal life. Described in 9th-century texts [ citation needed ] and used in fireworks in China by the 10th century, [ citation needed ] it was used in cannons by Gunpowder was used by the Mongols against the Hungarians in , and in Europe by the 14th century.

Chinese alchemy was closely connected to Taoist forms of traditional Chinese medicine , such as Acupuncture and Moxibustion. In the early Song dynasty , followers of this Taoist idea chiefly the elite and upper class would ingest mercuric sulfide , which, though tolerable in low levels, led many to suicide.

The introduction of alchemy to Latin Europe may be dated to 11 February , with the completion of Robert of Chester 's translation of the Arabic Book of the Composition of Alchemy.

Although European craftsmen and technicians preexisted, Robert notes in his preface that alchemy was unknown in Latin Europe at the time of his writing.

The translation of Arabic texts concerning numerous disciplines including alchemy flourished in 12th-century Toledo, Spain , through contributors like Gerard of Cremona and Adelard of Bath.

These brought with them many new words to the European vocabulary for which there was no previous Latin equivalent. Alcohol, carboy, elixir, and athanor are examples.

Meanwhile, theologian contemporaries of the translators made strides towards the reconciliation of faith and experimental rationalism, thereby priming Europe for the influx of alchemical thought.

In the early 12th century, Peter Abelard followed Anselm's work, laying down the foundation for acceptance of Aristotelian thought before the first works of Aristotle had reached the West.

In the early 13th century, Robert Grosseteste used Abelard's methods of analysis and added the use of observation, experimentation, and conclusions when conducting scientific investigations.

Grosseteste also did much work to reconcile Platonic and Aristotelian thinking. Through much of the 12th and 13th centuries, alchemical knowledge in Europe remained centered on translations, and new Latin contributions were not made.

The efforts of the translators were succeeded by that of the encyclopaedists. In the 13th century, Albertus Magnus and Roger Bacon were the most notable of these, their work summarizing and explaining the newly imported alchemical knowledge in Aristotelian terms.

Albertus critically compared these to the writings of Aristotle and Avicenna, where they concerned the transmutation of metals.

From the time shortly after his death through to the 15th century, more than 28 alchemical tracts were misattributed to him, a common practice giving rise to his reputation as an accomplished alchemist.

Roger Bacon, a Franciscan friar who wrote on a wide variety of topics including optics , comparative linguistics , and medicine, composed his Great Work Latin : Opus Majus for Pope Clement IV as part of a project towards rebuilding the medieval university curriculum to include the new learning of his time.

While alchemy was not more important to him than other sciences and he did not produce allegorical works on the topic, he did consider it and astrology to be important parts of both natural philosophy and theology and his contributions advanced alchemy's connections to soteriology and Christian theology.

Bacon's writings integrated morality, salvation, alchemy, and the prolongation of life. His correspondence with Clement highlighted this, noting the importance of alchemy to the papacy.

He noted that the theoretical lay outside the scope of Aristotle, the natural philosophers, and all Latin writers of his time. The practical, however, confirmed the theoretical thought experiment, and Bacon advocated its uses in natural science and medicine.

In particular, along with Albertus Magnus, he was credited with the forging of a brazen head capable of answering its owner's questions.

Soon after Bacon, the influential work of Pseudo-Geber sometimes identified as Paul of Taranto appeared.

His Summa Perfectionis remained a staple summary of alchemical practice and theory through the medieval and renaissance periods.

It was notable for its inclusion of practical chemical operations alongside sulphur-mercury theory, and the unusual clarity with which they were described.

Adepts believed in the macrocosm-microcosm theories of Hermes, that is to say, they believed that processes that affect minerals and other substances could have an effect on the human body for example, if one could learn the secret of purifying gold, one could use the technique to purify the human soul.

They believed in the four elements and the four qualities as described above, and they had a strong tradition of cloaking their written ideas in a labyrinth of coded jargon set with traps to mislead the uninitiated.

Finally, the alchemists practiced their art: they actively experimented with chemicals and made observations and theories about how the universe operated.

Their entire philosophy revolved around their belief that man's soul was divided within himself after the fall of Adam. By purifying the two parts of man's soul, man could be reunited with God.

In the 14th century, alchemy became more accessible to Europeans outside the confines of Latin speaking churchmen and scholars. Alchemical discourse shifted from scholarly philosophical debate to an exposed social commentary on the alchemists themselves.

Pope John XXII 's edict, Spondent quas non-exhibent forbade the false promises of transmutation made by pseudo-alchemists. These critiques and regulations centered more around pseudo-alchemical charlatanism than the actual study of alchemy, which continued with an increasingly Christian tone.

The 14th century saw the Christian imagery of death and resurrection employed in the alchemical texts of Petrus Bonus , John of Rupescissa , and in works written in the name of Raymond Lull and Arnold of Villanova.

Nicolas Flamel is a well-known alchemist, but a good example of pseudepigraphy , the practice of giving your works the name of someone else, usually more famous.

Although the historical Flamel existed, the writings and legends assigned to him only appeared in His work spends a great deal of time describing the processes and reactions, but never actually gives the formula for carrying out the transmutations.

Most of 'his' work was aimed at gathering alchemical knowledge that had existed before him, especially as regarded the philosopher's stone. Bernard Trevisan and George Ripley made similar contributions.

Their cryptic allusions and symbolism led to wide variations in interpretation of the art. During the Renaissance , Hermetic and Platonic foundations were restored to European alchemy.

The dawn of medical, pharmaceutical, occult, and entrepreneurial branches of alchemy followed. These were previously unavailable to Europeans who for the first time had a full picture of the alchemical theory that Bacon had declared absent.

Renaissance Humanism and Renaissance Neoplatonism guided alchemists away from physics to refocus on mankind as the alchemical vessel. Esoteric systems developed that blended alchemy into a broader occult Hermeticism, fusing it with magic, astrology, and Christian cabala.

He was instrumental in spreading this new blend of Hermeticism outside the borders of Italy. Philippus Aureolus Paracelsus , Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, — cast alchemy into a new form, rejecting some of Agrippa's occultism and moving away from chrysopoeia.

Paracelsus pioneered the use of chemicals and minerals in medicine and wrote, "Many have said of Alchemy, that it is for the making of gold and silver.

For me such is not the aim, but to consider only what virtue and power may lie in medicines. His hermetical views were that sickness and health in the body relied on the harmony of man the microcosm and Nature the macrocosm.

He took an approach different from those before him, using this analogy not in the manner of soul-purification but in the manner that humans must have certain balances of minerals in their bodies, and that certain illnesses of the body had chemical remedies that could cure them.

John Dee 13 July — December, followed Agrippa's occult tradition. Although better known for angel summoning, divination, and his role as astrologer , cryptographer, and consultant to Queen Elizabeth I , Dee's alchemical [84] Monas Hieroglyphica , written in was his most popular and influential work.

His writing portrayed alchemy as a sort of terrestrial astronomy in line with the Hermetic axiom As above so below. Proponents of the supernatural interpretation of alchemy believed that the philosopher's stone might be used to summon and communicate with angels.

Entrepreneurial opportunities were common for the alchemists of Renaissance Europe. Alchemists were contracted by the elite for practical purposes related to mining, medical services, and the production of chemicals, medicines, metals, and gemstones.

Although most of these appointments were legitimate, the trend of pseudo-alchemical fraud continued through the Renaissance. Betrüger would use sleight of hand, or claims of secret knowledge to make money or secure patronage.

Legitimate mystical and medical alchemists such as Michael Maier and Heinrich Khunrath wrote about fraudulent transmutations, distinguishing themselves from the con artists.

The terms "chemia" and "alchemia" were used as synonyms in the early modern period, and the differences between alchemy, chemistry and small-scale assaying and metallurgy were not as neat as in the present day.

There were important overlaps between practitioners, and trying to classify them into alchemists, chemists and craftsmen is anachronistic. Sendivogious taught his technique to Cornelius Drebbel who, in , applied this in a submarine.

Isaac Newton devoted considerably more of his writing to the study of alchemy see Isaac Newton's occult studies than he did to either optics or physics.

Other early modern alchemists who were eminent in their other studies include Robert Boyle , and Jan Baptist van Helmont.

Their Hermeticism complemented rather than precluded their practical achievements in medicine and science. The decline of European alchemy was brought about by the rise of modern science with its emphasis on rigorous quantitative experimentation and its disdain for "ancient wisdom".

Although the seeds of these events were planted as early as the 17th century, alchemy still flourished for some two hundred years, and in fact may have reached its peak in the 18th century.

As late as James Price claimed to have produced a powder that could transmute mercury into silver or gold. Early modern European alchemy continued to exhibit a diversity of theories, practices, and purposes: "Scholastic and anti-Aristotelian, Paracelsian and anti-Paracelsian, Hermetic, Neoplatonic, mechanistic, vitalistic, and more—plus virtually every combination and compromise thereof.

Robert Boyle — pioneered the scientific method in chemical investigations. He assumed nothing in his experiments and compiled every piece of relevant data.

Boyle would note the place in which the experiment was carried out, the wind characteristics, the position of the Sun and Moon, and the barometer reading, all just in case they proved to be relevant.

Beginning around , a rigid distinction began to be drawn for the first time between "alchemy" and "chemistry". This move was mostly successful, and the consequences of this continued into the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries.

During the occult revival of the early 19th century, alchemy received new attention as an occult science. In the 19th-century revival of alchemy, the two most seminal figures were Mary Anne Atwood and Ethan Allen Hitchcock , who independently published similar works regarding spiritual alchemy.

Both forwarded a completely esoteric view of alchemy, as Atwood claimed: "No modern art or chemistry, notwithstanding all its surreptitious claims, has any thing in common with Alchemy.

Hitchcock, in his Remarks Upon Alchymists attempted to make a case for his spiritual interpretation with his claim that the alchemists wrote about a spiritual discipline under a materialistic guise in order to avoid accusations of blasphemy from the church and state.

In , Baron Carl Reichenbach , published his studies on Odic force , a concept with some similarities to alchemy, but his research did not enter the mainstream of scientific discussion.

In his lineage, many researchers, including Emmanuel and Charles d'Hooghvorst, are updating alchemical studies in France and Belgium. Several women appear in the earliest history of alchemy.

Michael Maier names Mary the Jewess , Cleopatra the Alchemist , Medera , and Taphnutia as the four women who knew how to make the philosopher's stone.

The first alchemist whose name we know is said to have been Mary the Jewess c. The laboratory water-bath, known eponymously especially in France as the bain-marie , is said to have been invented or at least improved by her.

The tribikos a modified distillation apparatus and the kerotakis a more intricate apparatus used especially for sublimations are two other advancements in the process of distillation that are credited to her.

Due to the proliferation of pseudepigrapha and anonymous works, it is difficult to know which of the alchemists were actually women.

After the Greco-Roman period, women's names appear less frequently in the alchemical literature. Women vacate the history of alchemy during the medieval and renaissance periods, aside from the fictitious account of Perenelle Flamel.

Mary Anne Atwood 's A Suggestive Inquiry into the Hermetic Mystery marks their return during the nineteenth-century occult revival.

The history of alchemy has become a significant and recognized subject of academic study. A large collection of books on alchemy is kept in the Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermetica in Amsterdam.

A recipe found in a midth-century kabbalah based book features step by step instructions on turning copper into gold.

The author attributed this recipe to an ancient manuscript he located. Journals which publish regularly on the topic of Alchemy include ' Ambix ', published by the Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry, and ' Isis ', published by The History of Science Society.

Western alchemical theory corresponds to the worldview of late antiquity in which it was born. Concepts were imported from Neoplatonism and earlier Greek cosmology.

As such, the Classical elements appear in alchemical writings, as do the seven Classical planets and the corresponding seven metals of antiquity.

Similarly, the gods of the Roman pantheon who are associated with these luminaries are discussed in alchemical literature.

The concepts of prima materia and anima mundi are central to the theory of the philosopher's stone. In the eyes of a variety of esoteric and Hermetic practitioners, alchemy is fundamentally spiritual.

Transmutation of lead into gold is presented as an analogy for personal transmutation, purification, and perfection.

He is named "alchemy's founder and chief patron, authority, inspiration and guide". Early alchemists, such as Zosimos of Panopolis c.

AD , highlight the spiritual nature of the alchemical quest, symbolic of a religious regeneration of the human soul. In this sense, the literal meanings of 'Alchemical Formulas' were a blind, hiding their true spiritual philosophy.

Applied to the alchemist himself, the twin goal symbolized his evolution from ignorance to enlightenment, and the stone represented a hidden spiritual truth or power that would lead to that goal.

In texts that are written according to this view, the cryptic alchemical symbols , diagrams, and textual imagery of late alchemical works typically contain multiple layers of meanings, allegories, and references to other equally cryptic works; and must be laboriously decoded to discover their true meaning.

When the Philosophers speak of gold and silver, from which they extract their matter, are we to suppose that they refer to the vulgar gold and silver?

By no means; vulgar silver and gold are dead, while those of the Philosophers are full of life. Due to the complexity and obscurity of alchemical literature, and the 18th-century disappearance of remaining alchemical practitioners into the area of chemistry; the general understanding of alchemy has been strongly influenced by several distinct and radically different interpretations.

Principe and William R. Newman , have interpreted the 'decknamen' or code words of alchemy as physical substances.

These scholars have reconstructed physicochemical experiments that they say are described in medieval and early modern texts.

Today new interpretations of alchemy are still perpetuated, sometimes merging in concepts from New Age or radical environmentalism movements.

Since the Victorian revival of alchemy, "occultists reinterpreted alchemy as a spiritual practice, involving the self-transformation of the practitioner and only incidentally or not at all the transformation of laboratory substances", [91] which has contributed to a merger of magic and alchemy in popular thought.

Traditional medicine can use the concept of the transmutation of natural substances, using pharmacological or a combination of pharmacological and spiritual techniques.

In Ayurveda , the samskaras are claimed to transform heavy metals and toxic herbs in a way that removes their toxicity. These processes are actively used to the present day.

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