Orca Orcas brauchen Ihre Hilfe
Der Schwertwal ist eine Art der Wale aus der Familie der Delfine. Er wird auch Orca oder – zur Abgrenzung vom Kleinen Schwertwal – Großer Schwertwal genannt; eine alte deutsche Bezeichnung lautet Butskopf. Der Schwertwal (Orcinus orca) ist eine Art der Wale aus der Familie der Delfine (Delphinidae). Er wird auch Orca oder – zur Abgrenzung vom Kleinen. Orca steht für: Orcinus orca, eine Walart aus der Familie der Delfine, siehe Schwertwal · Orca – Der Killerwal, US-amerikanischer Spielfilm aus dem Jahr Es gibt jedoch rund 40 Delfin-Arten in den unterschiedlichsten Größe und Farben – und der Orca ist der größte und schwerste unter ihnen. Warum sind Orcas. Orcas (Schwertwale) sind hochintelligent, sehr anpassungsfähig und kommunikativ. Sie sind die größten Vertreter der Delfinfamilie. Sie können sogar ihre.
Der Schwertwal (Orcinus orca) ist eine Art der Wale aus der Familie der Delfine (Delphinidae). Er wird auch Orca oder – zur Abgrenzung vom Kleinen. Vor den Augen entsetzter Zuschauer tötete in Florida der Orca "Tilikum" seine Trainerin. Kritiker sagen, die Langeweile in der Gefangenschaft. Der Schwertwal ist eine Art der Wale aus der Familie der Delfine. Er wird auch Orca oder – zur Abgrenzung vom Kleinen Schwertwal – Großer Schwertwal genannt; eine alte deutsche Bezeichnung lautet Butskopf.
Orca - Das können Sie tunDas Gewicht liegt bei maximal 10 Tonnen. Bejagung — in einigen Ländern wie Grönland, Japan und Indonesien werden Orcas nach wie vor gejagt und getötet. Orcas sind oft sehr aktiv an der Wasseroberfläche, Sprünge und Spyhops können gerade bei Residents oft beobachtet werden. Dadurch könnten sie dem Eisbären die Rolle des Spitzen prädators der Arktis streitig machen und auch für diesen selbst, da die Bären sich bei Schwund der Eisfläche längere Zeit im Wasser aufhalten müssen, eine potentielle Bedrohung darstellen.
Killer whales have the second-heaviest brains among marine mammals  after sperm whales , which have the largest brain of any animal. They can be trained in captivity and are often described as intelligent,   although defining and measuring "intelligence" is difficult in a species whose environment and behavioural strategies are very different from those of humans.
Killer whales imitate others, and seem to deliberately teach skills to their kin. Off the Crozet Islands , mothers push their calves onto the beach, waiting to pull the youngster back if needed.
People who have interacted closely with killer whales offer numerous anecdotes demonstrating the whales' curiosity, playfulness, and ability to solve problems.
Alaskan killer whales have not only learned how to steal fish from longlines , but have also overcome a variety of techniques designed to stop them, such as the use of unbaited lines as decoys.
A researcher described what happened next:. It worked really well for a while. Then the whales split into two groups. It didn't even take them an hour to figure it out.
They were so thrilled when they figured out what was going on, that we were playing games. They were breaching by the boats. In other anecdotes, researchers describe incidents in which wild killer whales playfully tease humans by repeatedly moving objects the humans are trying to reach,  or suddenly start to toss around a chunk of ice after a human throws a snowball.
The killer whale's use of dialects and the passing of other learned behaviours from generation to generation have been described as a form of animal culture.
The complex and stable vocal and behavioural cultures of sympatric groups of killer whales Orcinus orca appear to have no parallel outside humans and represent an independent evolution of cultural faculties.
Two species or populations are considered sympatric when they live in the same geographic area and thus regularly encounter one another.
Female killer whales begin to mature at around the age of 10 and reach peak fertility around 20,  experiencing periods of polyestrous cycling separated by non-cycling periods of three to 16 months.
Females can often breed until age 40, followed by a rapid decrease in fertility. To avoid inbreeding , males mate with females from other pods.
Gestation varies from 15 to 18 months. In resident pods, births occur at any time of year, although winter is the most common.
According to observations in several regions, all male and female pod members participate in the care of the young. Males sexually mature at the age of 15, but do not typically reproduce until age Wild males live around 29 years on average, with a maximum of about 60 years.
This would have made him up to 90 years old. Examination of his teeth indicated he died around age 35,  but this method of age determination is now believed to be inaccurate for older animals.
Infanticide , once thought to occur only in captive killer whales, was observed in wild populations by researchers off British Columbia on December 2, In this incident, an adult male killed the calf of a female within the same pod, with the adult make's mother also joining in the assault.
It is theorized that the male killed the young calf in order to mate with its mother something that occurs in other carnivore species , while the male's mother supported the breeding opportunity for her son.
The attack ended when the calf's mother struck and injured the attacking male. Such behaviour matches that of many smaller dolphin species, such as the bottlenose dolphin.
In , the IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature changed its assessment of the killer whale's conservation status from conservation dependent to data deficient , recognizing that one or more killer whale types may actually be separate, endangered species.
Like other animals at the highest trophic levels , the killer whale is particularly at risk of poisoning from bioaccumulation of toxins, including Polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs.
When food is scarce, killer whales metabolize blubber for energy, which increases pollutant concentrations in their blood.
In the Pacific Northwest , wild salmon stocks, a main resident food source, have declined dramatically in recent years.
In , the United States government listed the southern resident community as an endangered population under the Endangered Species Act. They do not breed outside of their community, which was once estimated at around animals and later shrank to around These deaths can be attributed to declines in Chinook salmon.
Scientist Ken Balcomb has extensively studied killer whales since ; he is the research biologist responsible for discovering U. Navy sonar may harm killer whales.
The whales seemed "agitated and were moving haphazardly, attempting to lift their heads free of the water" to escape the sound of the sonars.
The sound originated from a U. Navy frigate 12 miles 19 kilometres distant, Balcomb said. Three years prior to Balcomb's discovery, research in the Bahamas showed 14 beaked whales washed up on the shore.
These whales were beached on the day U. Navy destroyers were activated into sonar exercise. These six dead whales were studied, and CAT scans of two of the whale heads showed hemorrhaging around the brain and the ears, which is consistent with decompression sickness.
Another conservation concern was made public in September when the Canadian government decided it was not necessary to enforce further protections including the Species at Risk Act in place to protect endangered animals along their habitats for killer whales aside from the laws already in place.
In response to this decision, six environmental groups sued the federal government, claiming killer whales were facing many threats on the British Columbia Coast and the federal government did nothing to protect them from these threats.
Underwater noise from shipping, drilling, and other human activities is a significant concern in some key killer whale habitats, including Johnstone Strait and Haro Strait.
Killer whales also avoided the surrounding waters. Eleven members about half of one resident pod disappeared in the following year.
The spill damaged salmon and other prey populations, which in turn damaged local killer whales. By , scientists estimated the AT1 transient population considered part of a larger population of transients , numbered only seven individuals and had not reproduced since the spill.
This population is expected to die out. A study published in Science found that global killer whale populations are poised to dramatically decline due to exposure to toxic chemical and PCB pollution.
The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast feature killer whales throughout their art , history, spirituality and religion.
The Haida regarded killer whales as the most powerful animals in the ocean, and their mythology tells of killer whales living in houses and towns under the sea.
According to these myths, they took on human form when submerged, and humans who drowned went to live with them.
The Maritime Archaic people of Newfoundland also had great respect for killer whales, as evidenced by stone carvings found in a 4,year-old burial at the Port au Choix Archaeological Site.
In the tales and beliefs of the Siberian Yupik people, killer whales are said to appear as wolves in winter, and wolves as killer whales in summer.
In Western cultures , killer whales were historically feared as dangerous, savage predators. Of the very few confirmed attacks on humans by wild killer whales, none have been fatal.
In the s, a surfer in California was bitten, and in , a boy in Alaska who was splashing in a region frequented by harbour seals was bumped by a killer whale that apparently misidentified him as prey.
Competition with fishermen also led to killer whales being regarded as pests. In the waters of the Pacific Northwest and Iceland , the shooting of killer whales was accepted and even encouraged by governments.
Navy claimed to have deliberately killed hundreds of killer whales in Icelandic waters in with machine guns, rockets, and depth charges.
Western attitudes towards killer whales have changed dramatically in recent decades. In the mids and early s, killer whales came to much greater public and scientific awareness, starting with the first live-capture and display of a killer whale known as Moby Doll , a resident harpooned off Saturna Island in To the surprise of those who saw him, Moby Doll was a docile, non-aggressive whale who made no attempts to attack humans.
Between and , 50 killer whales from the Pacific Northwest were captured for display in aquaria , and public interest in the animals grew. In the s, research pioneered by Michael Bigg led to the discovery of the species' complex social structure, its use of vocal communication, and its extraordinarily stable mother—offspring bonds.
Through photo-identification techniques, individuals were named and tracked over decades. Bigg's techniques also revealed the Pacific Northwest population was in the low hundreds rather than the thousands that had been previously assumed.
The public's growing appreciation also led to growing opposition to whale—keeping in aquarium. Only one whale has been taken in North American waters since In recent years, the extent of the public's interest in killer whales has manifested itself in several high-profile efforts surrounding individuals.
Following the success of the film Free Willy , the movie's captive star Keiko was returned to the coast of his native Iceland in She became the first whale to be successfully reintegrated into a wild pod after human intervention, crystallizing decades of research into the vocal behaviour and social structure of the region's killer whales.
However, his case was marked by controversy about whether and how to intervene, and in , Luna was killed by a boat propeller.
The earlier of known records of commercial hunting of killer whales date to the 18th century in Japan. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the global whaling industry caught immense numbers of baleen and sperm whales, but largely ignored killer whales because of their limited amounts of recoverable oil , their smaller populations, and the difficulty of taking them.
Between and , Japan took 1, killer whales although the Ministry of the Environment claims that there had been domestic catches of about 1, whales between late s to s  and Norway took Other than commercial hunts, killer whales were hunted along Japanese coasts out of public concern for potential conflicts with fisheries.
Such cases include a semi-resident male-female pair in Akashi Strait and Harimanada being killed in the Seto Inland Sea in ,   the killing of five whales from a pod of 11 members that swam into Tokyo Bay in ,  and a catch record in southern Taiwan in the s.
Killer whales have helped humans hunting other whales. Whalers more often considered them a nuisance, however, as orcas would gather to scavenge meat from the whalers' catch.
Whale watching continues to increase in popularity, but may have some problematic impacts on killer whales. Exposure to exhaust gasses from large amounts of vessel traffic are causing concern for the overall health of the 75 remaining southern resident killer whales SRKWs left as of early Air pollutants that bind with exhaust fumes are responsible for the activation of the cytochrome P 1A gene family.
A direct correlation between activation of this gene and the air pollutants can not be made because there are other known factors that will induce the same gene.
Vessels can have either wet or dry exhaust systems, with wet exhaust systems leaving more pollutants in the water due to various gas solubility.
As a response to this, in boats off the British Columbia coast now have a minimum approach distance of metres compared to the previous metres.
This new rule complements Washington State's minimum approach zone of metres that has been in effect since If a whale approaches a vessel it must be placed in neutral until the whale passes.
The World Health Organization has set air quality standards in an effort to control the emissions produced by these vessels.
The killer whale's intelligence , trainability, striking appearance, playfulness in captivity and sheer size have made it a popular exhibit at aquaria and aquatic theme parks.
From to , 55 whales were taken from the wild in Iceland, 19 from Japan, and three from Argentina. These figures exclude animals that died during capture.
Organizations such as World Animal Protection and the Whale and Dolphin Conservation campaign against the practice of keeping them in captivity.
Captives have vastly reduced life expectancies, on average only living into their 20s. Wild males who survive infancy live 31 years on average, and up to 50—60 years.
Critics claim captive life is stressful due to these factors and the requirement to perform circus tricks that are not part of wild killer whale behaviour, see above.
A study coauthored by staff at SeaWorld and the Minnesota Zoo indicates that there is no significant difference in survivorship between free-ranging and captive killer whales.
The authors speculate about the future utility of studying captive populations for the purposes of understanding orca biology and the implications of such research of captive animals in the overall health of both wild and marine park populations.
As of March , SeaWorld has announced that they will be ending their orca breeding program and their theatrical shows. They previously announced, in November , that the shows would be coming to an end in San Diego but it is now to happen in both Orlando and San Antonio as well.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Orca disambiguation. Largest living species of dolphin. Size compared to a 1.
Conservation status. Linnaeus , . Orcinus citoniensis fossil, an extinct species of the same genus, Museo Capellini in Bologna.
Modern orca skeleton, Naturalis , Leiden. A killer whale leaps out of the water when swimming—a behaviour known as porpoising, in Hood Canal.
Tail-slapping in Vestfjorden , Norway. Resident fish-eating killer whales: The curved dorsal fins are typical of resident females.
Comparison of the size of an average orca and an average great white shark. Multimedia relating to the orca. Killer whale calls.
Killer whale calls at a distance. Vocalizations of a killer whale. See also: Whale sound. Main article: Cetacean intelligence.
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